Agenda to kill Ancient Hindu Ayurveda.


This just came across my desk and I agree with content and message and behind the ugly face truth of Sonia Gandhi and her foreign hidden agenda to kill ancient Hindu knowledge of Aayurveda and Medicine.

Narendra modI can send Man Mohan Singh and his cabinet to jail at any time

અપ્રમાણિત દવાઓની આયાતદ્વારા આચરવામાં આવતા બેસુમાર નકલી એનકાઉન્ટરઃ
આરોપી: મનમોહન સિંહની કેબીનેટ

નરેન્દ્ર મોદી ચાહે તો કોઈ પણ ઘડીએ મનમોહન ની પૂરી કેબીનેટને જેલભેગી કરી શકે છે.

વિષયઃ
અસંદિગ્ધરીતે સંદિગ્ધ, અસરહીન અને અપ્રમાણિત એવી “ARV એન્ટી-રિટ્રો-વાઈરલ” નામની એક વિદેશી દવાને અબજો રુપીયાના ખર્ચે આયાત કરવાનું અને તેને ફરજીયાત રીતે ઉપયોગ કરાવવાનું કેન્દ્રીય સરકારનું કાવતરું. જો આ કાવતરામાં સામેલ ન થાઓ તો દંડિત કરવાનું કાવતરું.

મનમોહન અને તેની કેબીનેટ કહે છે “એચ. આઈ. વી. પોઝીટીવ”ને એઈડ ગણો અને બીજી માન્ય ચિકીત્સા પદ્ધતિને અવગણી અમારી વિશ્વ સ્તરે અમાન્ય થયેલી દવાનો ફરજીયાત તમારા દર્દી ઉપર ઉપયોગ કરો અને તેને મારો. જો તેમ ન કરવું હોય તો તો જેલમાં જાઓ. કારણ કે અમારે બીન જરુરી દવા આયાત કરી અમારા ગજવા ભરવા છે અને જે અમને સાથ ન આપે તેમને દંડવા છે.

કેસ સંદર્ભઃ As Central Government is killing this innocent Indian
people in this fake HIV AIDS encountering: Mrs. Jakia Nasim
 SLP 1088/2008 should be discharged as per Law of Natural
Justice.

“એચ આઈ વી પોઝીટીવ એ એઇડ નથી. એચ આઈ વી પોઝીટીવ એ એઈડ થવાની શક્યતા બતાવે છે. “એચ આઈ વી પોઝીટીવ”નો ઉપચાર કરવાથી તે મટી શકે છે. અને તેથી એઈડ થી બચી શકાય છે.

નેચરોપથી એ ગાંધીજી દ્વારા વિશ્વસ્ત અને સરકાર માન્ય ઉપચાર પ્રણાલી છે. અને નેચરોપથી દ્વારા થતા ઉપચારો વડે એચ આઈ વી પોઝીટીવ નો પણ ઉપચાર કરી શકાય છે. આ વાત સરાકારી દસ્તાવેજોમાં ઉપલબ્ધ છે.

પણ કેન્દ્ર સરકાર કે જેણે નેચરોપથીને માન્યતા આપી છે તે છતાં પણ એચ આઈ વી પોઝિટીવને એઈડ ગણે છે.

જે કોઇ બાળક એચ આઈ વી પોઝીટીવ સાથે જન્મે તેને માટે જરુરી નથી કે તેને એઈડ થશે. સામાન્યરીતે જે બાળક એચ આઈ વી પોઝીટીવ સાથે જન્મ્યું હોય તે અઢાર માસમાં એચ આઈ વી નેગેટીવ થઈ જાય છે. છતાં પણ તેને એઈડની સારવાર ચાલુ કરી દેવાય છે.

ARV એન્ટી-રિટ્રો-વાઈરલ નામની દવા બધા જ એચ આઈ વી પોઝીટીવ દર્દીઓને અપાય છે. અને સરકારના નેશનલ એઈડ કન્ટ્રોલ ઓર્ગેનાઈઝેશન દ્વારા આ ARV અપાય છે.
હવે આ ARV એ કોઈ અધિકૃત દવા છે જ નહીં. અને તેનાથી દર્દીઓ બચે છે તે પણ સાબિત થયું નથી તો પણ સરકાર કે જેણે નેચરોપથીની સારવારને માન્યતા આપી છે તો પણ તેને અવગણીને જે દવાને (ARV) ને વિશ્વમાં ક્યાંય પણ માન્યતા મળી નથી તેમજ વિશ્વ આરોગ્ય સંસ્થા એ જે દવાને નકારી છે તે દવાનો કેન્દ્ર સરકાર અને નેશનલ એઈડ કન્ટ્રોલ ઓર્ગેનીઝેશન ARV બનાવતી કંપનીની મીલીભગત થી ARVનો ઉપચારમાં વપરાશ કરી મોટું સડયંત્ર ચલાવી રહી છે. ARV દવા સપ્લાય કરતી કંપનીનું ત્રણ થી પાંચ અબજ રુપીયા વડે ગજવું ભરાય છે અને લગભગ ૨૦૦૦ વયસ્ક લોકો અને ૨૦૦ જેટલા બાળકો રોજ મરે છે. એટલે આ કામ તો કાયદાની દૃષ્ટિએ ગુનાઈત જ થયું કહેવાય.

વળી આ અધુરું હોય તેમ જે ચિકિત્સકો યોગ જેવી નેચરોપથીની ચિકિત્સા દ્વાર ઉપચાર કરે છે તેમને આ કેન્દ્ર સરકાર કોર્ટ કચેરીમાં ખડા કરે છે અને સજા કરી દંડાવે છે.”

પબ્લીક ઈન્ટરેસ્ટ લીટીગેશન ના સંદર્ભમાં આ સાથે પેપર બીડ્યા છે. તેમાં સરકારી સર્ક્યુલર ના સંદર્ભ પણ સામેલ છે.

શિરીષ મોહનલાલ દવે
———————–

શ્રી બાબુભાઇ ઠક્કર શું કહે છે?
Read attachment

SURPRISINGLY, A FOREIGNER OPENS OUR EYES!!!


Very interesting!!

IF THIS IS TRUE, NOW YOU KNOW WHAT HAPPENS TO ALL THE MONEY COLLECTED BY TEMPLES IN INDIA.
SURPRISINGLY, A FOREIGNER OPENS OUR EYES!!!
Believe or not, a Foreign writer opens our eyes… The Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowment Act of 1951 allows State Governments and politicians to take over thousands of Hindu Temples and maintain complete control of the money in any way they choose.

A charge has been made not by any Temple authority, but by a foreign writer, Stephen Knapp, in a book Crimes Against India and the Need to Protect Ancient Vedic Tradition, published in the United States that makes shocking reading.
 Hundreds of temples in centuries past have been built in India by devout rulers and the donations given to them by devotees have been used for the benefit of the (other) people. If, presently, money collected has ever been misused (and that word needs to be defined), it is for the devotees to protest and not for any government to interfere.

This letter is what has been happening currently under an intrusive law. It would seem, for instance, that under a Temple Empowerment Act, about 43,000 temples in Andhra Pradesh have come under government control and only 18 per cent of the revenues of these temples have been returned for temple purposes, the remaining 82 per cent being used for purposes unstated. Apparently even the world famous Tirumala Tirupati Temple has not been spared.

According to Knapp, the temple collects over Rs 3,100 crores every year and the State Government has not denied the charge that as much as 85 per cent of this is transferred to the State Exchequer, much of which goes to causes that are not connected with the Hindu community. Was it for that reason that devotees make their offering to the temples?

Another charge that has been made is that the Andhra Government has also allowed the demolition of at least ten temples for the construction of golf courses. Imagine the outcry, writes Knapp, if ten mosques had been demolished. It would seem that in Karanataka, Rs. 79 crores were collected from about two lakh temples and from that, temples received Rs seven crores for their maintenance, Muslim madrassahs and Haj subsidy were given Rs 59 crore and churches about Rs 13 crore.

Very generous of the government! Because of this, Knapp writes, 25 per cent of the two lakh temples or about 50,000 temples in Karnataka will be closed down for lack of resources, and he adds: The only way the government can continue to do this is because people have not stood up enough to stop it. Knapp then refers to Kerala where, he says, funds from the Guruvayur Temple are diverted to other government projects denying improvement to 45 Hindu temples. Land belonging to the Ayyappa Temple, apparently has been grabbed and Church encroaches are occupying huge areas of forest land, running into thousands of acres, near Sabarimala.

 A charge is made that the Communist state government of Kerala wants to pass an Ordinance to disband the Travancore & Cochin Autonomous Devaswom Boards (TCDBs) and take over their limited independent authority of 1,800 Hindu temples. If what the author says is true, even the Maharashtra Government wants to take over some 450,000 temples in the state which would supply a huge amount of revenue to correct the states bankrupt conditions.

And, to top it all, Knapp says that in Orissa, the state government intends to sell over 70,000 acres of endowment lands from the Jagannath Temple, the proceeds of which would solve a huge financial crunch brought about by its own mismanagement of temple assets. Says Knapp:
Why such occurrences are so often not known is that the Indian media, especially the English television and press, are often anti-Hindu in their approach, and, thus, not inclined to give much coverage, and certainly no sympathy, for anything that may affect the Hindu community. Therefore, such government actions that play against the Hindu community go on without much or any attention attracted to them. Knapp obviously is on record.

If the facts produced by him are incorrect, it is up to the government to say so. It is quite possible that some individuals might have set up temples to deal with lucrative earnings. But, that, surely, is none of the governments’ business? Instead of taking over all earnings, the government surely can appoint local committees to look into temple affairs so that the amount discovered is fairly used for the public good? Says Knapp: Nowhere in the free, democratic world are the religious institutions managed, maligned and controlled by the government, thus denying the religious freedom of the people of the country. But it is happening in India.

Government officials have taken control of Hindu temples because they smell money in them, they recognise the indifference of Hindus, they are aware of the unlimited patience and tolerance of Hindus, they also know that it is not in the blood of Hindus to go to the streets to demonstrate, destroy property, threaten, loot, harm and/or kill. Many Hindus are sitting and watching the demise of their culture.

They need to express their views loud and clear. Knapp obviously does not know that should they do so, they would be damned as communalists. But, it is time someone asked the Government to lay down all the facts on the table so that the public would know what is happening behind its back.
 Robbing Peter to pay Paul is not secularism. And temples are not for looting, under any name. One thought ….. that Mohammad of Ghazni has long been dead?????

Textual Corruption in Vedas


The Rig Veda is one of the oldest religious te...

Image via Wikipedia

Textual Corruption in Vedas

By : Agniveer                  

 

Once upon a time, cyberspace used to be dominated by fanatics. They included not only hackers and terrorists associations but also witchdoctors and scientists specializing in superstitions. They all had only one mission – to subdue all voices that don’t sing chorus with their own call of divine. Mortal remains of their deeds can still be witnessed in internet archives. In those times, they would proudly assert that only they has passport of heaven, and whosoever agrees even slightly shall not be forgiven – here and hereafter.

Their impact was spread across the world. But Indians – being the potentially most attractive population segment for their mission – were a special focus for them. Their witchdoctors thus created a lot of ready-made material which would be copy-pasted by the junior level missionaries across various discussion boards, social networking sites, blog sites, comments section of blog sites to dissuade Indians from their culture and its foundation towards the only way to achieve a virgins-ful heaven. The proof of their claim was visible to entire humanity through the marks on the moon that proved its splitting 14 centuries ago!

They were being very successful in their mission and this success made them proclaim that their dominance would increase with increasing penetration of internet among masses. By 2013, India was estimated to be fully dominated as per claims of their TV Channels. But then Agniveer came. And scenario changed. Now suddenly their copy-paste would get countered by similar copy-pastes from Agniveer site. Google would show up Agniveer site in Top 10 searches on most of the controversial topics that they would like Indians to be confused about.

Agniveer was a very humble small scale attempt without recourse to petro-dollars or millions of bucks. But it struck where it hurt the most. Agniveer did nothing great – it simply showed them the mirror. It proved to them that they have no logical basis to claim that only their belief system is perfect and everything else is a passport for hell. It showed them there is no evidence to prove that the holy scripture of theirs is indeed the same as provided by whom they claim to be their founder. And that blind belief devoid of reason is only a recipe to nurture terrorists. Agniveer also countered silly allegations on Indian culture through authoritative analysis and evidences.

Now suddenly their plans went awry. One witchdoctor in their team announced recently that he would not argue or debate with certain ‘sects’. Many others attempted to redefine their interpretations of their scriptures. But there are many who followed the deeds of the monkey of Panchatantra. In Pachatantra, there is a story of a monkey who was shivering in rain because he had no home. A sell-intentioned pigeon advised him to build a home so that he does not have to face such troubles again. The monkey got angry on this and destroyed the nest of the pigeon to ensure that even she does not have a home. This is what terrorist mind is all about – foolishness, anger, vindictiveness.

Similar minds have started countering Agniveer by denigrating the Vedas on most frivolous pretexts because they could not explain how they could demand the entire world to follow ONLY their book which was compiled only after 20 years of the murder of the founder by a gang which was itself murdered by yet another group. Even that book is not available fully today. But ‘Buffalo belongs only to one who has the stick’ seems to be their mantra.

A recent attempt has been by writing articles based on extremely outdated claims to prove that Vedas are also textually corrupted. We initially chose to ignore this long-rejected stupid research. We thought that someone else would counter it along with flat-earth theory while we focus on other prominent tasks. But considering the widespread promotion that is being provided to this viewpoint by petro-dollar power holders, we thought to have at least a short analysis debunking the myth. Because in an era of misinformation, truth is often nothing but a lie shouted thousand times!

We shall only provide brief concepts here that can be used by anyone to deduce the truth. We simply want to ensure that we do not act like pigeons to counter the terrorist monkey. Lets be gorillas instead!

To read the original allegation, you can simply type ‘Textual Corruption in Vedas’ in google and check the variants. We don’t want to provide a link and help popularize new names to replace old fanatics whose demise the world is celebrating today!

We shall provide brief summary of allegation and our analysis.

Here we start:

Prologue

1.

Even if someone conclusively proves that Vedas available today are textually corrupted/ incomplete or that an alien came in space-ship to replace original Vedas with a duplicate inferior variety it does not matter much. This is because:

– Vedas are not supposed to be merely mugged up and followed blindly or narrated like a parrot to invoke its divine powers or split the moon. The very word ‘Veda’ means knowledge. And hence Vedas have to be followed or adopted only to the extent that it is intuitive or reasonable to your own mind. So if you bring even the greatest scholar in the world to prove to me that Rigveda 1.1.5 means that “The one who claim to be a doctor, possesses a goat-beard but wear a suit-tie and tie, and asserts that all non-believers would go to Hell and apostates deserve being killed – should be greeted with footwear”, then I am not going to believe it. Because my own intellect and whatever I understood from Vedas so far tell me that fake should be countered with arguments and intellect, and not with symbolic gestures of frustrations that are insulting.

And by following my conscience in this manner to best of my abilities without bringing ego in picture, I would be following the Vedas.

– Vedas are supposed to be already encoded within our minds. What we read in books is merely a way to decode this knowledge. This is like the Laws of Motion. You don’t have to mug up what Newton wrote in Latin in Principia to understand the laws of motion. You approach the knowledge intuitively. And then to fulfill needs of further understanding, you may also learn Latin or whatever as situation demands. But you do so driven by logic and not guided by blind belief that mugging up will give to Heaven. We still refer to the texts because though technically it is possible for all of us to deduce the Laws of Motion and Theory of Relativity all by ourselves but it would become a very time-consuming process. We don’t take works of Newton or Einstein for mugging up blindly, we use them as check-posts to help us guide to right path in a manner that is intuitive/ logical to us.

So even if few pages of Principia are torn, or there are some misprints, or a few pages mixed up, it does not matter much because all that means is that for some parts, we will have to put a bit more extra effort to understand what exactly they meant. And especially if you are only a Class 1 student, these apparent mistakes would actually mean nothing at all for you.

In same vein, if an advanced scholar of Vedas complains of being stalled due to inaccessibility to certain portions of Vedas, it could still be understood. We are still puzzled on how Fermat’s Theorem could be elegantly solved because some pages of his diary are found missing! But if you asked after reading the last sentence – Who is Fermat? – then you don’t even need to bother about the missing pages!

2.

Those attempting to belittle the Vedas come with malevolent intent and not genuine intention to seek truth. While a Vedic follower would very clearly proclaim that we would reject any translation of Vedas that do not appeal to our conscience or is logically unsound, these fanatics would never ever say that they would follow the same standard for their text. They would never assert that there remains a scope that their text has been tampered with because it was written only 20 years after suspicious death of original founder by a murdering group of fighters.

They cannot do so because their cult has a rule – if someone turns apostate – kill him. So its a one way traffic – they shall never accept the truth and would continue to ridicule and decimate the non-believers. But the rest of us are supposed to accept their way merely because we are not taught to be fanatic!

3.

Proving textual corruption in Vedas will not result in the conclusion that any other text is divine. And even if corruption is proved in Vedas, that does not have much significance for reasons discussed above. So such attempts only showcase that the monkey of Panchatantra lives even today. I say this because the same sites and people that attempt to prove corruption in the Vedas are also the ones who openly promise permanent Hell for non-believers and defend those who justify death for apostates.

The goal of this article is merely to reassure that while we should keep caution of these dangerous monkeys, we should not take their monkey arguments seriously.

There is another story in Panchatantra about monkeys where a king and the minister went for a trip. They saw a lot of monkeys in a place. Every monkey was doing some monkey act – throwing stones, jumping, fighting each other, making noises etc. But there sat a monkey in one remote corner who was sitting in lotus position with eyes closed. The king said to the minister, “Look! This monkey looks like a saint. How peacefully is he sitting in meditation. Let us go and seek his blessings.” The minister replied, “O King! Don’t be duped by these acts of monkeys. Even this pretense of meditation by a monkey is a monkey-act. Lets move ahead.” The king refused, went to the monkey and bowed in front of him. Suddenly the monkey jumped, snatched the crown of the king, and ran away!

We hope the kings of this world would pay heed to this humble minister and protect their crowns.

Let me assure you that all these allegations on Vedas are baseless. There is always a remote possibility that Vedas are corrupted, or that there are 7 skies, or that moon was split into two when someone pointed finger, or that the hobbits of Lord of the Rings actually live in our cities, or that sun is smaller to earth and sets in a mud-pond, or that certain stones can snatch your clothes and run away, or that certain donkeys have face of a woman and can fly you to moon and 7 skies. And when we find reasonable evidences for these, we would be glad to not only accept these but promote them as well.

But for that to happen, more rational and plausible evidences have to be brought in light than these outdated frivolous ones.

Allegation 1: Different texts talk of different number of Vedas. No one is sure whether there is 1 Veda, or 3 or 4 or 5.

Agniveer:

1. Those who allege this should first read our article – http://agniveer.com/5090/fountainhead-philosophies-vedas/ that explains that its all about definitions. Just as I can define you as 1 person, or a group of 1 brain, 2 eyes, 2 nosetrils, 2 ears etc or as 2 different persons due to split personality causing confusion or whatever. But they all point to same thing.

Similarly, scholars have defined Vedas variously. If you consider only knowledge, Vedas is only 1. If you consider Para and Apara knowledge (liberating and mundane knowledge), then Vedas are 2. If you focus on Knowledge, Action and Contemplation, Vedas are 3. If you consider Rik, Yajuh, Sama, Atharva, Vedas are 4. If you consider each mandala of Rigveda as separate, then there are 10 Rigvedas. Similarly we have 40 Yajurvedas. If you take each mantra as a different Veda, you have more than 20,000 Vedas.

So number does not matter. They all point to same set of mantras.

2. Many Upanishads and Manu Smriti talk of Vedas coming from Agni, Vayu, Aditya, Angira. Some view these as Rishis in inception of human civilization. Others term them as innate sources of nature that inspired the Rishis. Whatever be the case, there is no denial that a select few Rishis got the knowledge of Vedas first and then they propagated in a manner that there remains perfect standardization since then.

Now these names Agni, Vayu, Aditya, Angira are nothing more than Unique IDs. These names depict their areas of specialization in same manner as Subhash Chandra Bose is called Netaji and Krishna is called Madhusudan. It is not that they were born with birth-certificates of these names on basis of which they were admitted in some schools or their Voter Cards were made. So just because Aditya is called Surya somewhere does not affect the Vedas in any manner. Atharvaveda is also called Angirasa because they depict characteristics of a particular Veda. Vedas are themselves called by different names depending upon what aspect of their property we want to focus upon.

The beauty of Vedic literature lies in the fact that words are not used with pre-decided arbitrary meanings to force the mind to think in specific directions. Instead words are derived from roots (which again are based on how each pronunciation impacts our minds) and hence verses allow the mind to think originally and discover new essence in a state of deep contemplation. So focus is on liberation and not imprisonment of intellect. And since it is already within you, you don’t simply mug up the meaning or even translate a meaning, you FEEL the meaning within. The very test of whether you understand a mantra or not is that whether you could intuitively FEEL the meaning from within. If not, don’t worry! Keep practicing, keep using your faculty of thinking and keep following your inner voice!

3. Vedas are very commonly classified into 3 because they represent 3 kinds of knowledge – Theory, Actions, Contemplation. Rigveda focuses more on theory, Yajurveda on actions and Samaveda on Contemplation. Note that they are not independent silos. They are merely overall themes. You cannot be expert in one unless you are also master of the other two. And that is why you would find a lot of repetition of verses in the different Vedas. It is just that the FEELING changes with change in context.

Now Atharvaveda is all about Practical Applications – integration of the wisdom of rest of the 3 Vedas. So often it is not referred separately. It is automatically included in the themes of rest of the 3 Vedas in same manner as Practical classes are assumed to be part of the subject of Physics along with Theory. So primarily Rik, Yajuh and Sama are mentioned in literature. Atharvaveda is also called Chhanda and mentioned wherever necessary.

4.

Q: Why Manu Smriti and Swami Dayanand talk of completing study of Vedas in 36 years by devoting 12 years on each Vedas? This means Vedas are only 3.

A: As explained earlier, Atharveveda is already included in the course curriculum. It is impossible to understand any Veda without referring to Atharvaveda for all of us except those who might have mastered all this in their previous birth and are born as Rishis since birth. For lesser mortals, when Rigveda or Yajurveda or Samaveda is to be mastered, the relevant portions of Atharvaveda have to be practiced to understand the applications. After all theory is incomplete without practicals.

This confusion comes in minds of those for whom study of a scripture only means becoming a Haafiz who could mug up and narrate the verses like a parrot. While mugging up is often useful and at times very necessary to preserve the Vedas, it is a very special course for very specific minds. For most of us, spending 12 years reading Physics will not mean spending time mugging the books. Further you don’t need to spend 12 years to mug up each Veda! Something like Yajurveda has less than 2000 mantras that can be completed in less than a year if mugging is all that has to be done.

In reality, even when you are mastering one particular Veda, you must study other Vedas as well and gain a reasonable proficiency in them. This is like Engineering Colleges having courses on Physics, Maths, English, Psychology, Economics etc as well.

So if you put 36 years on Vedas, don’t worry. Atharvaveda would automatically be taken care of.

5.

Q: What about 1131 branches/ shakhas of Vedas? Everyone knows that only a few of them remain today. All the other branches are lost.

A: Oh No. Not again. Branch refers to a particular recension style of Vedas to emphasize certain aspects and making it relevant to existing time and society. Branches or Shakhas are not eternal. But original Vedas have been preserved as they were even till today. Most Shakhas went extinct during a long period of misrule. But nonetheless our forefathers ensured that they did not allow the tradition of memorizing and preserving the original Vedas from generation to generation.

Now some fools argue that why are original Vedas are also called by name of Shakhas. The answer is that the name of Shakha is derived from the Rishi who ensured its preservation from generation to generation. Some Rishis chose to promote the variations so as to propagate their meaning among masses and specialized students. Some volunteered to continue preserving the original Vedas so that more Shakhas could be created in future. Why should we not acknowledge these Rishis? Hence Shaakal chose to preserve the Rigveda, Madhyandin chose to preserve Yajurveda, Shaunak chose to preserve Atharveveda and Kauthum chose to protect Samaveda. These refer not only to individuals but entire traditions.

None apart from misled fanatics ever had any disputes over these Shakhas and the originals. Even western indologists and detractors who were otherwise skeptic of Vedas and their meanings had to admit that original Vedas are available to us in same form as the oldest evidence available without any doubt.

Maxmuller announces in Origin of Religion (p 131): The texts of the Veda have been handed down to us with such accuracy that there is hardly a various reading in the proper sense of the word or even an uncertain accent in the whole of the Rig-Veda.

Maxmuller in Rigveda Vol 1, p XXX: As far we are able to judge at present, we can hardly speak of various readings in the Vedic hymns in the usual sense of that word. Various readings to be gathered from a collection of different manuscripts now accessible to us there are NONE.

Macdonell in A History of Sanskrit Literature (p 50): Extraordinary precautions soon began to be taken to guard the canonical text. Thus fixed against the possibility of any change or loss the result has been its preservation with a faithfulness unique in literary history.

Keigi in Rigveda (p 22): Since that time, nearly 3000 years ago, it (the text of the Vedas) has suffered no changes whatsoever, with a care such that the history of other literatures has nothing similar to compare with it.

Abinash Chandra Dass in Rigvedic India (p 5): These hymns, however, were not committed to writing on payrus, palm-leaves or baked clay-bricks, but to human memory carefully cultivated for the purpose and were handed down from generation to generation without the loss of even a single word or syllable.

Should we say more? Except that we don’t know the cure for paranoia.

Allegation 2: Some verses of Rigveda are missing. Nirukta 7.8 talks of a verse offering oblation to Vishnu and Agni in Rigveda but there is no such verse in current Rigveda. So the verse was lost.

Agniveer:

1. Nirukta wasn’t preserved in the way Rigveda was. So Rigveda is much more authoritative, especially after scrutiny by even the skeptics as mentioned above.

2. The Vishnu of Vedas is same as the Agni. Both refer to same Singular Supreme Entity. Only the misled see polytheism in Vedas. So joint oblation to Vishnu and Agni is applicable to any mantra that can be interpreted to imply those characteristics of Supreme that are common in meaning of Agni and Vishnu. This is a research subject for those who have skills to contemplate deeply on mantras. There is nothing conflicting in it. At best one can say that – Since I don’t know anything about Vedas because knowing that would put me in Hell, hence I cannot understand it.

3. Interestingly the very people who are currently raising this childish allegation are the ones who also attempt to prove that Vedas talk of only one Single God. But they use this argument when they want to prove that Vedas and their modern scripture both talk of the same Singular God, but because their scripture is latest, hence that latest version should be followed. Hence everyone should start believing in their religion to escape Hell.

But here, since the purpose is to create doubt, the exactly opposite argument is being propagated. Remember we talked about the monkeys? Now recall the advise of the minister.

Allegation 3: There is corruption in recitation of certain mantras. For example Rigveda 10.29.1 has a word that is pronounced as ‘Va +Yah’ in one Pada Patha and ‘Vayo’ somewhere. Scholars interpret the words differently and come with conflicting meanings. Another example is word ‘Mehanaasti’ which is interpreted as “Ma + Iha + Naasti’ in some Pada Patha.

Agniveer:

Whether we take the word as ‘Va + Yah’ or Vayo, they both are pronounced in exactly the same manner. Same is true for ‘Ma + Iha + Naasti’. However in Vedic mantras, these words come us Vayo and Mehanaasti. Scholars can have disputes over how the word should be interpreted. This is a research topic. Depending on their views, they can have different Pada Paatha or break-up of the words. Perhaps during Yaska’s time, someone broke the word in wrong manner and hence he had to counter it. Similar to the way even we have to counter the most outdated concepts even today despite the availability of thoroughly verified and edited Vedas!

Pada Paatha is NOT original Vedas. It is one way of preserving Vedas. There are 9 more. Refer http://agniveer.com/2697/no-textual-corruption-in-vedas/. If an error comes in Pada Patha, it is corrected by comparing with other methods. And hence today, there is no doubt over what the original Vedic mantras are. (Thanks to efforts of sages like Yaska from time to time.) I recommend looking at editions of Pt Damodar Satvalekar which is accepted widely as the most corrected published version.

Allegation 4: There are different versions of Rigveda available today each having a different number of mantras. Hence Rigveda is corrupted.

Agniveer:

So finally they discovered what even Max Muller and Macdonell could not discover. Like the splitting of moon in NASA images and blackholes in universe because their text says that certain starts disappear in daytime! But unfortunately, this one is also a very dated allegation that did not even stand for a few days when it first emerged. The difference in number comes only due to different methods of calculation. If I ask anyone to list those verses of Rigveda which are present in one version but not in another, no one can produce it. At least in last thousands of years of documented history no one could produce it.

This matter has been dealt in great detail in http://agniveer.com/3953/mantras-rigveda/ and final calculations have been provided.

Allegation 5: There are different versions of Yajurveda as well. There is Black and White Yajurveda which have significant differences. Ishopanishad was an Upanishad later inserted in Yajurveda as 40th Chapter.

Agniveer:

1. Black or Krishna Yajurveda is a branch (Shakha) and not original Yajurveda. It contains original mantras modified along with historical and explanatory descriptions to suit research interests of specific kind. Shukla or White Yajurveda refers to those branches of Yajurveda that modify the original mantras if required but do not add additional texts. The Madhyandini Yajurveda of Shukla Branch is the original Yajurveda and rest are its variations.

So in case you do not have access to original Yajurveda, start with a branch. That would be much more easy to approach due to explanations and simplifications. And when you have mastered them, you can have the taste of the original. The keen minds who are less paranoid and more zealous can approach the original directly as well!

2. Ishopanishad is nothing but the 40th Chapter of Yajurveda as it appears in a particular branch of Black Yajurveda with some modifications. Because this is the greatest text on spiritualism and philosophy and mother of all other texts like Geeta, other Upanishads and even Darshans, it has a special place in Vedic literature. Being mother of all Upanishads, it is called Isha Upanishad. Only a paranoid can explain why he or she thinks that Isha Upanishad cannot be part of Yajurveda.

Allegation 6: Swami Dayanand added an additional word “Gamyaat” in Yajurveda 9.20 while explaining the mantra. Hence Yajurveda is corrupted.

Agniveer:

1. Did Swami Dayanand add the word in the mantra? No. The word is found only in Hindi translation in some editions. Now Swami Dayanand used to dictate meaning in Sanskrit to his pundits who would then translate it in Hindi as well as transcribe what he said.

But even if he or his pundit added the word in explanation, then you should be thankful to him for attempting to simplify things instead of taking exceptions.

2. Even if Swami Dayanand added the word in the mantra, that does not make Yajurveda corrupted. It only means that Swami Dayanand made an error. When did Vedas or Agniveer or Swami Dayanand claim that humans are fully perfect?

Allegation 7: Arya Samaj translation of Vedas has an additional mantra at the end of Yajurveda Chapter 25. Hence Yajurveda is corrupted.

Agniveer:

1. So your anger is towards additional bonus that Arya Samaj translation gives you, if I understand properly. This means that you admit original Vedas to be a subset of existing Vedas with one less mantra. Hence there is no loss of information at least.

2. Now if we review this mantra, is it against rest of the Vedas in its message? If not, then what is the cause of concern. If you get one additional sentence in Einstein’s text on relativity that was written later by an editor but only emphasizes what Einstein says in rest of the paper, how is that a problem?

3. This is an objection only for those who think that if they mug up the book of divine and say a big sorry for all their misdeeds and laziness to Supreme Lord, they would easily get Heaven full of virgins. But for Vedic followers, there are no shortcuts to success. You have to practice what you learn in actions and keep exploring the truth within. And when you have liberated yourself from ignorance significantly, you would well have re-ignited the Vedas within. So one harmless mantra in one edition makes absolutely no difference. The only cause of concern could have been if the verse misled you, which it does not.

4. By the way, the 25th Chapter has only 47 mantras and that is accepted by one and all. Some publishers publish an additional mantra due to relevance of context. Perhaps someone inserted it years ago and then no printer bothered to or rather was not competent enough to scrutinize it. Please send us the name of the publisher and we shall write to him to correct the mistake. Or even you can write so referring to this article.

Allegation 8: Yajurveda 26.26 has a word ‘Ayohate’ which is used as ‘Apohate’ in Arya Samaj version. Hence Yajurveda is corrupted.

Agniveer:

1. This is a printing mistake. Real word is Ayohate (अयोहते). Now in Devanagri script, Ya (य) and Pa (प) appear almost similar. Such errors are found in several places in Vedas because the first time they were being printed, they were being typeset from hand-written manuscripts. However Pt Damodar Satvalekar did a great job of scrutinizing all published mantras with manuscripts and manuscripts with various Paatha methods to give to us extremely authentic editions of Rigveda.

2. But thankfully, the meaning does not change because that was based on actual word.

So yes, printed versions may have corruptions. But neither the original Vedas, nor the potential of humans to discover the Vedas from within and compare with those outside has been corrupted.

Allegation 9: Yajurveda 39.5 has a word “Vishyandane” which is used as “Vishpandane” in Arya Samaj version. Hence Yajurveda is corrupted.

Agniveer:

Refer previous allegation.

Allegation 10: Yajurveda 13.58 has a phrase “Lokam Taa Indram” that is missing in Arya Samaj version. Hence Yajurveda is corrupted.

Agniveer:

It does not matter whether this text is there or not. The meaning of the phrase is implied in overall meaning of the mantras continued from Chapter 12 itself up to this last mantra of Chapter 13. So for sake of completion of meaning you can put the phrase, and for sake of brevity you can skip it. A conservative approach would be to keep it. but if focus is to understand meaning alone, it can be skipped. We suggest having the phrase for sake of completeness.

Allegation 11: Samaveda has Kauthum and Jaimini branches having different number of verses as well as songs. Hence Samaveda is corrupted.

Agniveer:

We have already mentioned that Kauthum Rishi preserved the original Samaveda. Refer the previous discussion on branches.

Further, Samaveda songs make no sense for the disturbed mind. They represent the melodies that generate from within when one reaches a high level of enlightenment and exalted state. Jaimini branch offers more variety and you can experiment with them to find what melody touches you the most. However keep caution – avoid spicy food, meat, alcohol, anger, frustration, hatred etc, study other Vedas as well and practice meditation. Without foundation of this, you may be simply wasting your time.

Allegation 12: Atharvaveda 20.127.3 is different in different versions. Arya Samaj has word “Rishaye” and Gayatri Pariwar has word “Ishaya”. Hence Atharvaveda is corrupted.

Agniveer:

Again a case of printing mistake due to bad handwriting in Devanagri manuscript or error by typist. The correct word is ‘Ishaya’. Printing mistakes are not attributable to original texts.

Allegation 13: Shatpath Brahman 13.4.3.4-8 states that young men should listen to Atharvaveda and young ladies to Angirasaveda on consecutive days. Before that Rigveda and Yajurveda should be listened. This means that:

– There is no mention of Samaveda and hence Samaveda is not a Veda.

– Atharvaveda and Angirasveda are different. Rishi Angiras was 4th generation from Rishi Atharva.

Agniveer:

I shall not comment on what exactly this reference from Shatpath means. But even if we take it at face value:

1. Samaveda is not mentioned because Samaveda cannot be simply listened like other Vedas. Samaveda is all about emotions and meditation. Further, bulk of mantras in Samaveda are already in Rigveda. So there is no purpose of listening them again. However if the same mantras are meditated upon with emotions and sung, new revelations would come. But this is not in context of the ritual described. You need to separately practice this art.

2. Even if Rishi Angiras was born 4th generation from Rishi Atharva (I shall not comment on authenticity of this history), how does it matter? Names of Rishis depict their deeds and specializations and not the names in their Class X pass certificate. So a specialist in Atharvaveda can name himself Rishi Atharva. Similarly another Rishi can use synonym of Atharva ie Angiras and use as his name. This is similar to we using Agniveer as our name. Now just because we call ourselves Agniveer, it does not mean that we are the author of all the mantras in Vedas that have word ‘Agni’.

3. Refer http://agniveer.com/3937/who-wrote-vedas/ to understand authorship of Vedas as per available evidences and claims.

4. Atharvaveda and Angirasveda refer to same text. They are also called Chhanda in some places. Atharvaveda has the privilege of multiple names because it is an all-rounder. It adopts from Rik, Yajuh and Sama Vedas are brings forth their applied aspects. To there are multiple dimensions to it deserving multiple names.

But if this be the argument for Vedas being corrupted then Quran is perhaps the most corrupted text in the world. Because Quran is referred by a huge number of names in Quran itself. The word Quran was later adopted for the text by fighting followers long after death of the peace-loving founder. The founder never knew that this book would be called Quran. Quran is also referred by names reserved for Jewish and Christian texts in Quran itself! That is why some scholars conclude that original Quran refers to Bible or Old Testament or some unchangeable text which was existing ever prior to Testaments and was much bigger in size. This a matter of scholarly debate and we shall leave it to scholars.

But we believe that such frivolous means should not be adopted to claim corruption in any text. There should be something more substantial, reasonable and rational.

Final countdown

There are various versions of the article floating in cyberspace that allege corruption in Vedas. However all end with one single conclusion which we reproduce below:

“The above analysis proves beyond the shadow of a doubt that Vedas have suffered heavy interpolations and changes. Talking strictly, even if one accusation of the above analysis stands, the entire Vedic literature will be unacceptable as a genuine inspired document.”

Agniveer:

1. This exposes the motive of the author(s). They just want to throw 100 arrows blindly in the hope that at least one will hit the bull’s eye.

2. They term their assertions regarding Vedas as ‘accusations‘ that speaks volumes about their terrorism-inspired mindset. Truth-seeking is only a warfare for them. The author inspired by the Panchatantra monkey only wants the crown of the king. This also shows their desperation and insecurity complex arising out of the recent depletion of fanatic dominance over cyberspace and elsewhere as well.

3. Unfortunately none of the arrows came even close to hitting the dart-board. The reason is simple – they were hitting at completely opposite direction. And since earth is perhaps not round as per the scriptures they blindly believe in, there is no chance of the arrows even making a full circle to hit from the back! We hope next time, when they ‘accuse’ someone, they would do a more thorough and unbiased research. But that would demand rejection of company and idol-worship of fanatics.

4. To take this argument to an extreme, let us state something. Even if all the allegations…sorry ‘accusations’ stand, still that would NO WAY AFFECT the Vedic religion. This is because the very essence of Vedic religion is to not blindly and literally translate any text as recipe for life. Instead it is all about opening the minds and discovering the Vedas within. The amount of Vedas we know from available benevolent literature is sufficient for us to make a head-start. And as we progress is practice of accepting truth by rejecting falsehood without bringing ego, laziness, frustration, fear etc in picture, the Law of Karma would automatically ensure that we would get the right tools and texts that we need for further progress. And until we make ourselves eligible in this manner, the most immaculately preserved Vedas would also be nothing different from tonnes of books in the libraries that no one ever issued. So instead of raising frivolous paranoia about what we don’t even understand, all we have to do is to promise the following:

‘I promise to accept truth through a continuous process of rejecting falsehood every moment to best of my abilities in the most sincere manner.’

And let Law of Karma manage the rest.

Vedic texts are like Science textbooks for us and not a roadside Mantra-Tantra book that promises to help us getting job, marriage, money, destruction of enemy, mesmerism over lover, invisibility, control of Jinna and ghosts etc by blankly reciting certain mantras on microphone and moving some bones.

Sorry, if you think Vedas are akin to Jhaad Phoonk of Pagla Baba Banarasi, or Ajmer Sharif ka Jaadu, or Shahdara Wale Miyanji ke Totke or something similar, you are at a wrong place. Get these addresses from any Railway Station rather than daring to open the minds to think honestly. Or perhaps your own scripture might be a good replacement for these Babas and Miyans.

For rest of us, please understand what Vedic religion is all about by reviewing http://agniveer.com/series/universal-religion-for-all/ and firmly understand that even if someone proves us that Vedas have vanished in thin air, nothing is going to change. Vedas would still remain a genuine inspired document and Law of Karma would still work!

Don’t worry though! Vedas remain as preserved as they were always.

But yes, be wary of monkeys snatching away your crown! After all you are a king!

Sanskrit Speaking Village !!


Karnataka

Image via Wikipedia

Sanskrit Speaking Village !!
Sun, 09/20/2009 – 14:39 — sanjeev851
Sanskrit as an everyday spoken language in the village of Mattur near Shimoga in Karnataka (about 300 Km from Bangalore City)
and 3 other villages in India !!

http://www.organiser.org/dynamic/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pi…

Sanskrit can become the language of the masses in rural areas
 By Shreesh Deopujari

“……One more medium of imbibing virtues like sense of duty, integrity, devotion, faith, etc. is Sanskrit language. By speaking consistently in devvani (God’s language) the so-called downtrodden or the depressed class of the society also feels elevated. They not only feel confident but also develop samskars, which is the very base of any developmental activity. Therefore, Sanskrit Sambhashan is one of the prominent aspects of rural development, the work being undertaken by swayamsevaks across the country. There are a number of villages in the country where all daily activities of life are conducted only in Sanskrit. The prominent villages in this group are Muttoor and Hosahalli in Karnataka and Jhiri and Mohad in Madhya Pradesh where Sanskrit has truly become language of the masses. More than 95 per cent the people of Muttoor and hundred per cent people in Jhiri speak Sanskrit.

Muttoor (Karnataka)
 Apart from Muttoor, Hosahalli and Jhiri; Mohad and Baghuwar in Madhya Pradesh and Ganoda under Banswara district of Rajasthan are also the villages where Sanskrit is spoken by majority of the villagers. Not only for asking well-being of each other but even while ploughing the fields, talking on telephone, purchasing goods from the grocer’s shop, getting the hair cut at barber’s shop, preparing food in kitchen, etc. people freely speak Sanskrit. The containers having spices and other things in the kitchen too contain the names in Sanskrit. Nobody in these villages thinks what will happen by learning Sanskrit. Whether it will help in getting a job or not. It is our language and we have to learn it is the only feeling amongst them.

Muttoor, the village of about 2,000 inhabitants, is located about 8 km south of Shimoga. The Tunga river flows gently on one side of the village. Its fame as the Sanskrit Gram has spread far and wide. Sanskrit is the spoken language of over 95 per cent of the people here. Soft and dulcet, a conversation sounds like a Vedic recital. Though it is a journey, which began about 500 years ago, Sanskrit has been modified as per the modern needs here by Samskrit Bharati. As one enters the village he is greeted with ” bhavatha nam kim? (What is your name?), “coffee va chaayam kim ichchhathi bhavan? (What will you have, coffee or tea?). The pronunciation of “Hari Om” instead of ‘hello’ and “katham asti” instead of ‘how are you?’ are common here.

Everybody-men, women, children, literate or illiterate-freely speaks Sanskrit. Even the Muslim families speak Sanskrit without hesitation and as comfortably as is spoken by the Hindus. Their children are found in the streets reciting Sanskrit shlokas. Even while fighting and playing cricket in the grounds children freely speak Sanskrit. When one walks down a few places from the school where one touches the ratha veethi (car street) and graffiti on the walls what grabs the attention is: “Maarge swachchataya virajate, grame sujanaha virajante” (Cleanliness is as important for a road as good people are for the village). Other slogans like ‘keep the temple premises clean’, ‘keep the river clean’ and ‘trees are the nation’s wealth’ are also written in Sanskrit and painted on walls reflecting ancient values. There are families who have written on their doors-‘You can speak in Sanskrit in this house.’ This is basically to tell the visitors that in case they are fluent in the language they can talk to them in Sanskrit.

Study of the language here begins from Montessori level, where kids are taught rhymes and told stories in Sanskrit-even Chandamama and comics printed in Sanskrit are available here. While the language is a compulsory subject in schools, teachers and even students talk to each other in it. Muttoor is not a cloistered hermitage shy of the outside world. Many of its youngsters have moved to cities in search of greener pastures in pursuit of higher education. Some are teaching Sanskrit in universities across the State and more than 150 youngmen and women are in the field of IT as software engineers. Many foreign students also visit the village to learn Sanskrit and stay with them in true guru-shishya tradition.

For more than 25 years now the village has been in the forefront of a movement to keep spoken Sanskrit alive. In the local Sharada Vilasa High School, Sanskrit is compulsory till class VIII to X. So, the present generation too has learnt to speak it. Mothers teach children Sanskrit at home.

The credit for this silent revolution surfacing the country to popularising Sanskrit goes to Samskrit Bharati. Thousands of its activists are burning the midnight oil to move forward this movement.

It is not necessary for a person to be literate for learning Sanskrit. Undoubtedly, a literate person can pick up the language easily, but an illiterate person too can learn it. There are thousands of people who were earlier fully illiterate but now speak fluently in Sanskrit. One such example was seen in Baoli village under Baghpat district of Uttar Pradesh where a 50-year-old Shri Jaiprakash speaks fluent Sanskrit. Shri Jaiprakash has never been to school but he learnt Sanskrit only in four camps of Samskrit Bharati organised in Delhi, Haridwar, Meerut and Baraut. Now he teaches Sanskrit to his fellow villagers. All his family members too speak Sanskrit.

Jhiri, Mohad and Baghuwar (Madhya Pradesh)
 Jhiri comes under Rajgarh district of Madhya Pradesh. Total population of the village is 976 and all the people including small children, women, elder people, school-going children, literate and illiterate speak fluently in Sanskrit. Samskrit Bharati had started conducting Samskrit Sambhashan camps in the village in 2002 through an activist Vimla Tewari. She had come here only for one year. But in that one year she developed so much interest of the villagers to the divine language that everybody in the village turned to learn Sanskrit. Now all the villagers love Vimla as their own daughter. Former RSS Sarsanghachalak Shri KS Sudarshan visited this village. He was so much impressed with the command of the villagers over Sanskrit that he, while touring the village, touched the feet of elderly women at four places and sought their blessings. The morning of the people in this village begins with Namo Namah and ends with the greetings of Shubhratri.Anyone who visits this village is thrilled seeing all people speaking fluently in the God’s language.

The village Panchayat takes special steps to popularise Sanskrit in Mohad. Even Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Muslim families speak Sanskrit without hesitation. Similar picture can be seen in Baghuwar village, which is near Mohad. In Jhiri, the farmers while ploughing their field even order their oxen in Sanskrit and the oxen too follow those instructions.

Due to the Sanskrit language caste, discrimination between the so-called lower and upper castes has reduced. Those who speak the language can hold his head high in the society. The oneness of the society leads to the development of the village. Jayatu Sanskritam.

(The writer is Akhil Bharatiya Prakalp Pramukh of Samskrit Bharati.) “

Hare Krishna !!

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Related: General
Wed, 04/14/2010 – 08:37 — burak__
Hi, I wish you all good day,

Hi,
I wish you all good day, this site is really nice I would always follow this site. Help me a lot of time
 data would be obtained from this site, or hope to. But I want you to know that this site is really good Thanks a lot for the kind of perfect topic about this topic. It’s good to buy an essay about this good topic. Nice article, very helpful e okul. Thanks

Sun, 01/10/2010 – 13:13 — vinaykapp
 hare krishna

am vinay Krishna
 and i really reallly wanted to visit those villages taking my friends along with me and would like to talk to the villagers in their language which ofcourse is my second language in my 12th standard.
just love to see them and would greatly appreciate their will and love upon their mother tongue…
thanks a ton to this page designers

Sun, 09/20/2009 – 19:17 — NityānandaChandra
WOW I want to go there.

WOW I want to go there. Stay there for a few months, imagine how much that would help in learning.

Sun, 01/10/2010 – 13:18 — vinaykapp
let me join u in being there

please let me join u in being there…

Sun, 09/20/2009 – 20:29 — sanjeev851
EXACTLY !!

I too felt the same.. !!
 Im just dying to go there and experience the language being spoken.. and feel as though im 5000 yrs behind at the time when Krishna was on earth !!
 Guess what ?.. This village – Mattur , is just abt 200-300 from my place (Bangalore ) .
 I dont know when i will visit this place..

Knowing sanskrit brings us closer to the vedic litrature .
I wish the language spreads outside this village .

According to me , Sanskrit isnt just a language .. Its something like Mathematics .. Its highly scientific and Systematic..
 In fact the meaning of the word sanskrit is “Systematic” , “Perfect” , “Cultured” ..

I was going through a PDF file with sanskrit lessons, i was amazed to see how systematic it is !!
No doubt its God’s Language (Dev Vani)

If just the language Sanskrit can be so systematic, what abt Bhagavad Gita and other vedic literature? .

Sad to see that Sanskrit isnt given enough importance here.. That is because people do not know its importance here..

Hare Krishna !!

Brahmins and Gotra


SOME TIMES BY ; SANTOSH  BHATT

  In general, Gotra denotes any person who traces descent in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor.

Panini defines Gotra for grammatical purposes as ” apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram” (IV. 1. 162),

Which means ‘the word Gotra comes as progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son’s son. When a person says ‘ I am Kashypasa-gotra, ‘ he means that he traces his descendt from the ancient sage Kashyapa.
By unbroken male descent. According to the Baudhâyanas’rauta-sûtra Viśvāmitra, Jamadagni, Bharadvâja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Agastya are 8 sages;

the progeny of these eight sages is declared to be gotras. This enumeration of eight primary gotras seems to have been known to Pānini. These gotras are not directly connected to Prajapathy or latter brama.

The offspring (apatya) of these eight are gotras and others than these are called ‘ Gotrâvayava ‘.[24]

The Gotras are arranged in groups, e. g. there are according to the Âsvalâyana-srautasûtra four subdivisions of the Vasishtha gana, viz. Upamanyu, Parāshara, Kundina and Vasishtha (other than the first three).

Each of these four again has numerous sub-sections, each being called gotra. So the arrangement is first into Ganas, then into Pakshas, then into Individual gotras.

The first has survived in the Bhrigu and Āngirasa gana. According to Baudh., the principal eight gotras were divided into pakshas. The pravara of Upamanyu is Vasishtha, Bharadvasu, Indrapramada;

The pravara of the Parâshara gotra is Vasishtha, Shâktya, Pârâsharya; the pravara of the Kundina gotra is Vasishtha, Maitrâvaruna, Kaundinya and the pravara of Vasishthas other than these three is simply Vasishtha. It is therefore that some define pravara as the group of sages that distinguishes the founder (lit. the starter) of one gotra from another.

There are two kinds of pravaras, 1) sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara, and 2) putrparampara. Gotrapravaras can be ekarsheya, dwarsheya, triarsheya, pancharsheya, saptarsheya, and up to 19 rishis. Kashyapasa gotra has at least two distinct pravaras in Andhra Pradesh: one with three sages (triarsheya pravara) and the other with seven sages (saptarsheya pravara).

This pravara may be either sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara or putraparampara. When it is sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara marriage is not acceptable if half or more than half of the rishis are same in both bride and bridegroom gotras. If it is putraparampara, marriage is totally unacceptable even if one rishi matches.[25] sandilya gotra one a gotra of brahmins.about a month ago · 

Gotra A term applied to a clan, a group of families, or a lineage – exogamous and patrilineal – whose members trace their descent to a common ancestor, usually a sage of ancient times.

A gotra is of immense importance to a Hindu for it shores up his identity. All Hindu ceremonies require a statement of the gotra. A devout Hindu speaks out his gotra and pravara every day in the morning. Gotra also comes of use during the performance of the rites of passage or sanskaras. People of the same gotra (sagotra) are not allowed to marry, to prevent inbreeding. At weddings, the gotra of the bride and the groom are proclaimed aloud to establish that they are not breaking this socially ordained genetic precaution. Marriages between certain gotras are also not allowed; for instance, marriages between those of the Vasishtha and Vishvamitra gotras are not permitted. This is because these two sages were opponents and their descendants are traditional foes.

In olden times, every gotra had a definite task to perform. Thus every Veda had priests of specific gotras for their narration and teaching. Certain sacrifices require priests of a specific gotra only.

There are 49 established Hindu gotras. All members of a particular gotra are believed to possess certain common characteristics by way of nature or profession. Many theories have been propounded to explain this system. According to the brahminical theory, the Brahmins are the direct descendants of seven or eight sages who are believed to be the mind-born sons of Brahma. They are Gautama, Bharadvaja, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Atri. To this list, Agastya is also sometimes added. These eight sages are called gotrakarins from whom all the 49 gotras (especially of the Brahmins) have evolved. For instance, from Atri sprang the Atreya and Gavisthiras gotras. According to this theory, the Kshatriyas and Vaishyas do not have a gotra and are to Gotraspeak out the gotras of their Purohita during the various ceremonies. However according to some Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, they are also descendants of these sages. Because of this, many a time a Brahmin, Kshatriya and a Vaishya claim the same gotra. The members of a gotra however need not necessarily be blood relations, but could be spiritual inheritors or descendants of a guru’s pupils.

Among the Kshatriyas, Rajputs claim to be the direct descendants of the Sun (Suryavanshi), the moon (Chandravanshi) or the fire (Agnikula). They are also divided into numerous clans, each bearing the name of some great ancestor. Similarly every caste and class of the Hindus is divided into many clans.

In olden times the members of the brahminical gotras had certain characteristic features distinguishing them from the others: the Bhargavas had their heads shaven, the Angirasas wore five braids and so on.

Gotra closely connected with the concept of gotra is that of pravara which is the invocation of Agni by the name of the ancestral sage of whichever Brahmin consecrates the sacrificial fire. As a rule, there are not more than four or five sages in one pravara. Two gotras having a common pravara are not allowed to marry. For instance those of the Kashyapa and Shandilya gotras cannot intermarry because they share the same sage, Asita, in their pravaras.

Abhivada, the formal proclamation of one’s ancestry, is only enjoined upon ‘twice-born’ (see also Upanayanam) males. It includes not just the gotra and pravara but, for a Brahmin, the Veda to which he ‘belongs’, the Sutra or Vedic interpretation favored by his gotra and finally his own name. It is said with the thumb behind the ears, in the traditional gesture of invoking ancestors. Today’s great classical musicians invoke their gurus similarly before beginning a concert.

Vasishtha, Maitra – Varuna, Kaundinya Trayarishiya gotre, Apastambha sutra, Yajushtagadhyayi, Sri Parashuraman Sharmana aham asmiboho. In the Rig-Veda (see Veda), the word gotra means a ‘cowpen’. In the Vedic period, marriage within the family was a common occurrence. The term gotra was used in its present sense for the first time in the Brahmanas. It was systematised by about the 4th century BC to accommodate changed social rules and laws and by the time of the Sutras, it was a well-established system. Even today almost all families abide by its rules.

 Now on Modern day thinking if I add my 2 cents worth of opinion on subject is If we take 1 and divide in to Half i.e 1/ .5 what we get after ten generation is negligible portion.

Let me describe it in detail. One man and One woman. who tie holy matrimony and start Family, They have Kids either Baby Boy or Baby Girl who marries now let us go back to original man who mixed his blood or lineage with Woman, In modern time X and Y and new generation is born.

Now if you divide like that what is significance of Gotra after 10 generation ? is a Million Dollar question to be asked.

Any one wants to throw light on subject and enlighten me. I shall really appreciate it..

We Brahmins are Educated clan and have always been smart in our out of Box thinking and approach.

Isn’t it time to have modern aproch so our society can benefit and we can progress.

Please read my article on VARNA VYAVASTHA / CAST ARRANGEMENTS. written in webdunia.com which is English translation of original Hindi article on subject.

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